Friday, April 3, 2020
LASIK surgery Seeing well without contact lenses and glasses is the dream of millions of Americans and modern medical science has enabled that dream to come true (Caster, 8). Since first grade, Dede Head, a 30-year-old fitness trainer in North Carolina, has worn glasses to correct sever nearsightedness and astigmatism. Over the years she became accustomed to wearing glasses and contacts, but this has limited many important aspects of her life, including sports. She then heard of a laser eye surgery that ?supposedly?, helped to correct a person's vision by means of lasers. She immediately signed up for the procedure and ever since that day, she has not worn glasses or contacts. Dede is just one of the eight hundred-fifty-thousand people who have undergone a procedure by the name of LASIK or Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis. If surgical procedures were movies, LASIK would be this years box office smash as it has received much media coverage and many praises; however, not that many people know what LASIK is, what the advantages and disadvantages are, and most importantly if LASIK is right for them (Buratto, 1). LASIK is basically a type of laser surgery which can help correct nearsightedness (myopia), which is the inability to see distant objects, farsightnedness (hyperopia), which is the inability to see close, and astigmatism, the inability to focus light waves evenly. LASIK has grown greatly in the last year, mostly because of 4 reasons; it is fast (procedure takes about 5-10 minutes), safe, painless, and the results are almost always prolific. The eye is just like a camera because it works by focusing light waves that pass through it. Light rays that enter the eye must first pass through the most outer layer of the eye called the cornea. The cornea performs 2/3 of the focusing process, the remainder of is then completed by the crystalline lens which further focuses the light on the retina. This requires extreme precision in that the focused light must fall exactly at the level of the retina (Gallo, 126). The retina is a nerve tissue that carpets the inner surface of the eye, much like wallpaper covers all aspects of a wall. The retina converts the light into electrical signals, which are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve. Just as a camera cannot produce clear photographs of the image if the incoming light is not focused on the film, we cannot produce a clear vision if the cornea and crystalline lens do not focus the light precisely on the retina. This is where LASIK steps in. A laser is a device that creates a very special kind of light energy that is usually invisible to the human eye (Caster, 16). In LASIK, ophthalmologists use a certain type of laser called the excimer. By using invisible ultraviolet light, the excimer is able to break covalent bonds between molecules. What sets excimer aside from other lasers used in medicine is the wavelength used. At one-hundred ninety-three nm (nanometers), excimer lasers remove tissue by breaking the covalent without creating much thermal energy (Slade, 25). This allows for precise removal of tissue with minimal surrounding tissue damage. The very thin layer of the cornea that is removed, changes the curvature of the cornea ever so slightly, thus then results in a change in the light focusing ability. In nearsightedness (myopia), light rays from distant objects are not focused on the retina, but instead they are focused in front of the retina (See Figure 1). Therefore to correct nearsightedness in a LASIK procedur e, the curvature of the cornea must be decreased or in another words made flatter by removing corneal tissue in a disc-shaped pattern, or from the central cornea. A computer determines the exact pattern and number of pulses that are needed to do this. In farsightedness (hyperopia), light rays from distant objects are focused not onto the retina, but behind it (See Figure 1). To correct this, the central portion of the cornea must be made steeper; and this is accomplished by removing corneal tissue in a donut shaped pattern, or in another words more from the peripheral areas. Eyes with astigmatisms focus light waves unevenly because of the irregular shape of the cornea; football shaped
Sunday, March 8, 2020
teenage smoking essays This is a story about Stephanie. When she was 16 she had her first cigarette, in the back of her friends car. Her friend lit up a cigarette for herself and then offered Stephanie one. Stephanie knew that smoking was bad for you, but everyone else she knew had tried it. She wanted to feel like she fit in. She smoked the cigarette and thought to herself, Hey, this is pretty cool. I feel so relaxed. Two years later, Stephanie was a senior and smoking a pack a day. She found it hard to make it through her eight hour school day without having a smoke. She knew she was addicted, but liked the fact that she was part of the smoking crowd in her school. Four years later and about 450 packs of cigarettes later, Stephanie was in college, and addicted as ever. She knew she wanted to quit, but didnt think she could hack it with all the stress of college. She wished that she had never had that first cigarette when she was 16, because she wouldnt be addicted now. If there had been a la w, prohibiting teenage smoking, she never would have started. According to the National Institute of drug abuse, each day, 3,000 teens smoke their first cigarette. That is more that one million annually. Despite government attempts, teenage smoking is rising in alarming numbers. In fact, in Ohio 35 percent of high-school kids smoke. A number way above the 24 percent of adult smokers. Ohio needs a tough law to prohibit teens from smoking, so that these percentages will be smaller in upcoming years. The government needs to target teenagers, because they will become the future smokers. Instead of concentrating on addicted adults, they should be preventing young people from starting. It is hard to get adults who have been smoking for numerous years to stop. Its much easier to prevent youth from starting. In January of 1998, cigarette manufacturer, Philip Morris, admitted that the company had monitored the smoking habi...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Federal Express (Canada) - Case Study Example Further, FedEx which is known and trusted for its integrity, according to Birla (2005), breaks its promises of refunding the company and, therefore, this paper addresses the alternative strategies that could foster any organizations thrive. This report is based on the inconveniences experienced by Ã¢â¬ËDesktop InnovationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (DI) as a result of poor service provision by the Federal Express Company (FedEx). The Desktop Innovations office manager (Anita Kilgour) wrote a letter to the FedEx Company following their late delivery of one package and their failure to prompt necessary communications. In her letter, the office manager detailed the problems encountered in using the FedEx to convey packages to Simpsonville, South Carolina from Kitchener, Ontario. The letter states that of the two packages supposed to arrive at Simpsonville for a trade show, only one package was received and the other one was lost on the way. It was later discovered that the missing package had lost its shipping bill at Memphis and was sent back to Toronto. This resulted in loss of huge amounts of money amounting to $1200 on the booth Charlotte show and fee. Time was also wasted and an accumulation of up to 3 hours on phone calls by the off ice manager to FedEx office as a follow-up of the missing package. Furthermore, the FedEx Company which was trusted of its high integrity in product delivery had incredibly failed to respond to the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s fears and even failed to keep their promise of refunding or crediting the company as per their rules of commitment. In her later, Anita Kilgour reported the missing package and also complained of the misconduct of the FedEx Company for failing to abide by their promises, which of course had made it gain trust over other organizations. Anita tried making a number of phone calls to the office to follow up on the progress in search of the missing package but unfortunately she always
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
4 articles about UK politics - Essay Example The safety of the population is put at risk as the politicians try to save the government money by keeping criminals out of jail and they try to win votes during election season, also by doing the same thing. The result of which, according to Bray, is a higher crime rate and a slap on the hand of the repeat offenders. Bray made it clear that he wanted the politicians to stop using the judicial system for their personal benefit. It was, he said, the job of the politicians to make sure that the prisons could hold the convicted so that they would be taken out of society for the benefit of the greater good. He also said that the police needed to step up and do their jobs. The statements made by Bray were contradicted by Justice Minister Jeremy Wright however. Justice Minister Wright explained that Bray made statements in error as the conviction rate for criminals has been on the rise since 2010 and the criminals were staying in prison longer than Bray indicated. He also dismissed claims of government and police interference in the sentencing of criminals. Coalition Spending Revealed: Crime Agencys Ã £336,573 Outlay on Mercedes Vans for Special Projects, a Ã £27,000 Parking Bill at Gatwick Airport and Ã £108,000 PR Spend Among Government DepartmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Public Accounts Oliver Wright of The Independence reports that a snapshot analysis of the government spending over the first 2 months of this year shows just how mismanaged the government finances are. Apparently, there have been a few questionable government project awarded to private contractors. Thanks to the government rules, these figures were made public because the amount of the contracts were all over the Ã £25,000 limit. As the report progressed, more and more disturbing disbursement of the public funds were found. These included the National Crime Agency payout to Mercedes Benz in the amount of Ã £336,573 for the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Angiosperm Questions Jump to: Answers Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The products of meiosis in plants are always which of the following? a.Ã spores b.Ã eggs c. sperm d.Ã seeds e.Ã both B and C 2. Which of the following is the correct sequence during alternation of generations in a flowering plant? a.Ã sporophyte-meiosis-gametophyte-gametes-fertilization-diploid zygote b.Ã sporophyte-mitosis-gametophyte-meiosis-sporophyte c.Ã haploid gametophyte-gametes-meiosis-fertilization-diploid sporophyte d.Ã sporophyte-spores-meiosis-gametophyte-gametes e.Ã haploid sporophyte-spores-fertilization-diploid gametophyte 3. Which of the following is true in plants? a.Ã Meiosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes. b.Ã Meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores. c.Ã The gametophyte is the dominant generation in flowering plants. d.Ã Plants exist continually as either sporophytes or gametophytes. e.Ã Male gametophytes and female gametophytes have the same structure. 4. All of the following are features of angiosperms except: a.Ã a triploid endosperm. b.Ã an ovary that becomes a fruit. c.Ã animal pollination. d.Ã a small (reduced) sporophyte. e.Ã double fertilization. 5. All of the following floral parts are directly involved in pollination or fertilization except the: a.Ã stigma. b.Ã anther. c.Ã sepal. d.Ã carpel. e.Ã style. 6. A mutation in which of the following floral parts would have the greatest impact on pollination? a.Ã sepal b.Ã petal c.Ã stamen d.Ã carpel e.Ã either C or D 7. A mutation in which of the following floral parts would have the greatest potential impact on fertilization? a.Ã sepal b.Ã petal c. stamen d.Ã carpel e.Ã either C or D 8. Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the outside to the inside of a complete flower? a.Ã petals-sepals-stamens-carpels b. Ã sepals-stamens-petals-carpels c.Ã spores-gametes-zygote-embryo d.Ã sepals-petals-stamens-carpels e.Ã male gametophyte-female gametophyte-sepals-petals 9. All of the following are primary functions of flowers except: a. pollen production. b.Ã photosynthesis. c.Ã meiosis. d.Ã egg production. e.Ã sexual reproduction. 10. Meiosis occurs within all of the following flower parts except the: a.Ã ovule. b.Ã style. c.Ã megasporangium. d.Ã anther. e.Ã ovary. 11. A perfect flower is fertile, but may be either complete or incomplete. Which of the following correctly describes a perfect flower? a.Ã It has no sepals. b.Ã It has fused carpels. c.Ã It is on a dioecious plant. d.Ã It has no endosperm. e.Ã It has both stamens and carpels. 12. Which of the following types of plants is not able to self-pollinate? a.Ã dioecious b.Ã monoecious c.Ã complete d.Ã wind-pollinated e. insect-pollinated 13. In flowering plants, pollen is released from the: a.Ã anther. b.Ã stigma. c.Ã carpel. d.Ã filament. e.Ã pollen tube. 14. In the life cycle of an angiosperm, which of the following stages is diploid? a.Ã megaspore b.Ã generative nucleus of a pollen grain c.Ã polar nuclei of the embryo sac d.Ã microsporocyte e.Ã both megaspore and polar nuclei 15. Where does meiosis occur in flowering plants? a.Ã megasporocyte b.Ã microsporocyte c.Ã endosperm d.Ã pollen tube e.Ã megasporocyte and microsporocyte 16. Which of the following is a correct sequence of processes that takes place when a flowering plant reproduces? a.Ã meiosis-fertilization-ovulation-germination b.Ã fertilization-meiosis-nuclear fusion-formation of embryo and endosperm c.Ã meiosis-pollination-nuclear fusion-formation of embryo and endosperm d.Ã growth of pollen tube-pollination-germination-fertilization e.Ã meiosis-mitosis-nuclear fusion-pollen 17. Which of these is incorrectly paired with its life-cycle generation? a.Ã anther-gametophyte b.Ã pollen-gametophyte c.Ã embryo sac-gametophyte d.Ã stamen-sporophyte e.Ã embryo-sporophyte 18. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen sac? a.Ã sporangia-meiosis-two haploid cells-meiosis-two pollen grains per cell b.Ã pollen grain-meiosis-two generative cells-two tube cells per pollen grain c.Ã two haploid cells-meiosis-generative cell-tube cell-fertilization-pollen grain d.Ã pollen grain-mitosis-microspores-meiosis-generative cell plus tube cell e.Ã microsporocyte-meiosis-microspores-mitosis-two haploid cells per pollen grain 19. Which of the following occurs in an angiosperm ovule? a.Ã An antheridium forms from the megasporophyte. b.Ã A megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis. c.Ã The egg nucleus is usually diploid. d.Ã A pollen tube emerges to accept pollen after pollination. e.Ã The endosperm surrounds the megaspore mother cell. 20. Where and by which process are sperm produced in plants? a.Ã meiosis in pollen grains b. meiosis in anthers c.Ã mitosis in male gametophytes d.Ã mitosis in the micropyle e.Ã mitosis in the embryo sac 21. In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent? a.Ã ovule-egg b.Ã embryo sac-female gametophyte c.Ã endosperm-male gametophyte d.Ã seed-zygote e.Ã microspore-pollen grain 22. Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant? a.Ã ovule b.Ã microsporocyte c.Ã pollen grain d.Ã embryo sac e.Ã stamen The following questions refer to the diagram of an embryo sac of an angiosperm. 23. Which cell(s), after fertilization, give(s) rise to the embryo plant? a.Ã A b.Ã B c.Ã C d.Ã D e.Ã E 24. Which cell(s) become(s) the triploid endosperm? a.Ã A b.Ã B c.Ã C d.Ã D e.Ã E 25. What is the relationship between pollination and fertilization in flowering plants? a.Ã Fertilization precedes pollination. b.Ã Pollination easily occurs between plants of different species. c.Ã Pollen is formed within megasporangia so that male and female gametes are near each other. d.Ã Pollination brings gametophytes together so that fertilization can occur. e.Ã If fertilization occurs, pollination is unnecessary. 26. Genetic incompatibility does not affect the a.Ã attraction of a suitable insect pollinator. b.Ã germination of the pollen on the stigma. c.Ã growth of the pollen tube in the style. d.Ã membrane permeability of cells. e.Ã different individuals of the same species. 27. The integuments of an ovule function to do what? a.Ã protect against animal predation b.Ã ensure double fertilization c.Ã form a seed coat d.Ã both A and B e.Ã both A and C 28. A fruit includes a.Ã one or more seeds. b.Ã the ovary wall. c.Ã fleshy cells rich in sugars. d.Ã brightly colored pigments to attract animal dispersers. e.Ã both A and B 29. Which of the following is not an advantage of an extended gametophyte generation in plants? a.Ã Male gametophytes can travel more easily within spore walls. b.Ã The protection of female gametophytes within ovules keeps them from drying out. c.Ã The lack of need for swimming sperm makes life on land easier. d.Ã Female gametophytes develop egg cells, which are fertilized within an ovule that will become a seed. e.Ã Endosperm forms a protective seed coat. 30. What is typically the result of double fertilization in angiosperms? a.Ã The endosperm develops into a diploid nutrient tissue. b.Ã A triploid zygote is formed. c.Ã Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed. d.Ã Two embryos develop in every seed. e.Ã The fertilized antipodal cells develop into the seed coat. 31. Which of the following statements regarding the endosperm is false? a.Ã Its nutrients may be absorbed by the cotyledons in the seeds of eudicots. b.Ã It develops from a triploid cell. c.Ã Its nutrients are digested by enzymes in monocot seeds following hydration. d.Ã It develops from the fertilized egg. e.Ã It is rich in nutrients, which it provides to the embryo. 32. What is the embryonic root called? a. plumule b. hypocotyl c.Ã epicotyl d.Ã radicle e.Ã shoot 33. Which of the following vegetables is botanically a fruit? a.Ã potato b. Ã lettuce c.Ã radish d.Ã celery e.Ã green beans 34. Which of these structures is unique to the seed of a monocot? a.Ã cotyledon b.Ã endosperm c.Ã coleoptile d.Ã radicle e.Ã seed coat 35. Fruits develop from: a.Ã microsporangia. b.Ã receptacles. c.Ã fertilized eggs. d.Ã ovaries. e.Ã ovules. 36. The first step in the germination of a seed is usually: a.Ã pollination. b.Ã fertilization. c.Ã imbibition of water. d.Ã hydrolysis of starch and other food reserves. e. emergence of the radicle. 37. When seeds germinate, the radicle emerges before the shoot. This allows the seedling to quickly: a.Ã obtain a dependable water supply. b.Ã mobilize stored carbohydrates. c.Ã protect the emerging coleoptile. d.Ã avoid etiolation. e.Ã initiate photosynthesis. 38. In plants, which of the following could be an advantage of sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction? a.Ã genetic variation b.Ã mitosis c.Ã stable populations d. Ã rapid population increase e. greater longevity 39. Regardless of where in the world a vineyard is located, in order for the winery to produce a Burgundy, it must use varietal grapes that originated in Burgundy, France. The most effective way for a new California grower to plant a vineyard to produce Burgundy is to: a.Ã plant seeds obtained from French varietal Burgundy grapes. b.Ã transplant varietal Burgundy plants from France. c.Ã root cuttings of varietal Burgundy grapes from France. d.Ã cross French Burgundy grapes with native American grapes. e.Ã graft varietal Burgundy grape scions onto native (Californian) root stocks. 40. Which of the following is not a scientific concern relating to creating genetically modified crops? a.Ã Herbicide resistance may spread to weedy species. b.Ã Insect pests may evolve resistance to toxins more rapidly. c.Ã Nontarget species may be affected. d.Ã The monetary costs of growing genetically modified plants are significantly greater than traditional breeding techniques. e.Ã Genetically modified plants may lead to unknown risks to human health. Angiosperm Reproduction Questions Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.1 2. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.1 3. ANS: B TOP: Concept 38.1 4. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.1 5. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.1 6. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.1 7. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.1 8. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.1 9. ANS: B TOP: Concept 38.1 10. ANS: B TOP: Concept 38.1 11. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.1 12. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.1 13. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.1 14. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.1 15. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.1 16. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.1 17. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.1 18. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.1 19. ANS: B TOP: Concept 38.1 20. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.1 21. ANS: B TOP: Concept 38.1 22. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.1 23. ANS: B TOP: Concept 38.1 24. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.1 25. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.1 26. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.1 27. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.2 28. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.2 29. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.2 30. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.2 31. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.2 32. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.2 33. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.2 34. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.2 35. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.2 36. ANS: C TOP: Concept 38.2 37. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.2 38. ANS: A TOP: Concept 38.3 39. ANS: E TOP: Concept 38.3 40. ANS: D TOP: Concept 38.4 E A B D C B D D B B E A A
Sunday, January 19, 2020
To Kill A Mockingbird: Prejudice Is Part of Our Inherent Nature Why did Atticus defend a nigger? What was the point of being the advocate for a black man? It doesn't matter if their guilty or innocent, you can ceaselessly and effortlessly convict the animals for their colour vice. You can even turn a blind eye to the obvious truth. And so did the Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬ , the white, narrow- minded, bigoted and hypocritical people of Maycomb. The justification for why Atticus broke from the norm, and acted unlike most others in his community, can be compared to the motive of the central character in the novel, A Time To Kill, written by John Grisham. The comparative character, a lawyer named Jake, also endangers not only his own life but his family's, by defending a Negro. He is compelled to undergo such a risk as he believes he is protecting an innocent man. Despite the fact that he is black. Jake could not live with himself if he failed to give his utmost effort in clearing the accused, Carl Lee Hailey's, name. The lawyer feels that it is his obligation to humanity to do so. Similarly, the case Atticus accepts is something which goes to the essence of a man's own conscience. Atticus is unable to treat the underdogs of the town how the majority of people act towards them. Clearly the people of Maycomb are narrow-minded, bigoted and hypocritical, and Atticus Finch is not. Nothing can be done to make the prejudiced, perverse people hear the truth. This dogmatic attitude does not occur exclusively between the whites and the Negroes either. The community's unsubstantiated stories about other citizens also demonstrate their heedless to the truth and prejudiced natures. Arthur Radley, otherwise labelled Boo, has for decades been maliciously slandered, in the county. The people that have done so do not know Arthur, and the reason they can make such judgments escapes me. When there was a series of pets being mysteriously slaughtered, the consensus was that it was performed by Boo. Later, when the culprit transpired to be someone else, most people were still rooted in the belief that Boo was to blame. They could not believe the truth. And all unsolved crimes committed, in the area, have been manufactured solely by him. If your garden freezes it is because he breathed on it and nuts and other fruits, grown on the Radley property, are considered poisonous. Why have these allegations been targeted on Arthur? All that distinguishes him from other folks is that he isolates himself from the community. Is privacy a crime?
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Egypt: Art and Architecture Architecture The great architectural achievements of the past are built of stone. Stone quarries supplied the large blocks of granite, limestone, and sandstone that were used for building temples and tombs. Architects planned carefully as building was done without mortar, so the stones had to fit precisely together. Only pillars were used to sustain short stone supports. At the temple of Kara, a ramp of adobe brick can be seen leading to the top of the temple wall.Such ramps were used to allow workmen to carry stones to the top of structure and allow artists to decorate the tops of walls and pillars. Pillars were built in the same way. As height was added, the ground was raised. When the top of the pillar was completed, the artists would decorate from the top down, removing ramp sand as they went along. As soon as a pharaoh was named, construction on his tomb was begun. Tomb building continued throughout his life and stopped only on the day on which he die d.As a result, some tombs are very large and finely decorated, while other tombs, like that of King Tutankhamen, are small because he ruled as a pharaoh for such a short time. The architecture was based upon perpendicular structures and inclined planes since there was no tutorial assistance except the strength and balance of the structure itself. For this reason, the square and the plumb-line were very important tools. One of the most notable and lasting achievements of the Ancient Egyptians are their pyramids. The size, design, and structure of the pyramids reveal the skill of these ancient builders.The pyramids were great monuments and tombs for the kings. The Egyptians believed that a king's soul continued to guide affairs of the kingdom even after his death. To ensure that they would continue to enjoy the blessings of the gods, they preserved the pharaohs body through the mummification process. They built the pyramids to protect the pharaohs body, the pyramid was a symbol of hop e, because it would ensure the pharaohs union with the gods. The largest pyramid in existence is the Great Pyramid built by King Cheeps (Chuff) at Gaza.The Great Pyramid measures 481 feet high, by 775 feet long at each of its four bases. Other notable pyramids include the Step Pyramid built for King Sore, and the pyramid built for King Hunt, that was a transition between the step pyramid and the smooth sided pyramid we know today. The art of the Egyptians reflects every aspect of their lives. Depicted in tomb and temple drawings are scenes of everyday living, models of people and animals, glass figures and containers, and Jewelry made from gold and semi-precious stones.The wall and pillar drawings are perhaps the best known. In these drawings, it can be seen that people are going about the everyday business of baking, fishing, boating, marketing, and meeting together in family groups. Such drawings were also used to help the deceased to live forever by giving them all of the instruc tions they would need as they met the gods on their way to eternal life. The good deeds were recorded ND the art that surrounded their mummified body was to help their spiritual self in solving the problems related to life after death.Pictures of food, clothing, servants, and slaves could be used by the deceased Just as the real things were used by the person when living. A variety of perspectives is often combined in Egyptian art; however, the side view is the most often seen. The artists used bright colors of blue and red, orange and white to develop pictures that tell of the life of the deceased individual. The artist would first sketch a design on a piece of pottery, and if the sign was satisfactory, it would be sketched on the wall with charcoal. Colors could then be used to fill in the completed picture.Paints were made from naturally occurring minerals and artificially prepared mineral substances. Paint brushes were sticks with fibrous wood with frayed ends. Walls were covere d with mud plaster, then with lime plaster. By the time of Rammers II, artists were able to shade colors to achieve a layered effect. Wall paintings were then protected by a thin layer of varnish (the composition of which is still not known). Sculptors were important artists in Egypt. Statues were made of kings, queens, scribes, animals, and gods and goddesses.Frequently, human and godlike attributes and symbols were combined. The work of the artist was seen in other media as well. Alabaster, a white and translucent stone, was often used for making vessels and containers. Pottery was made of ceramics and clay. Pottery glazed with minerals was used to make beads, amulets, pendants, and other Jewelry. A vivid blue glaze was very popular during the reign of Rammers II. Craftsmen made glass for inlayer designs and for some containers. Workers were able to make articles out of lead, gold, silver, and copper.Such metals were used to make pins, tweezers, razors, axes, knives, spears, sculp tures, and Jewelry. The stability of the government during the reign of Rammers II allowed the skills of the artist and architect to flourish. Religion was often the subject of Egyptian literature. Prayers and hymns were written in praise of the gods. The most important book was Ã¢â¬Å"The Book of the Dead. Ã¢â¬ This book contained over 200 prayers and magic formulas that taught the Egyptians how to reach a happy afterlife. The Egyptians also wrote adventure stories, fairy tales, myths, love stories, poems, proverbs and quotes. Egyptian architecture Ancient Egyptian Architecture The Egyptians have survived for thousands of years, and are considered to be the hallmark of human civilization. They are the first known culture to have a stable society for such a long period of time. The reason their society was so stable is because they all believed in the same thing, which was that the gods were the first priority and that their pharaoh was a man who ascended to the level of a god. Another reason that the Egyptians survived for so long was because their architectural prowess was unmatched for thousands of year by any other civilization.Not only do buildings and statues show us how great the Egyptian kingdom was, but it also gives us and enormous amount of insight into their culture and what they valued; and what they valued above all, and what drove them to build such monumental feats of architectural achievement was the afterlife. The afterlife was the sole reason many of Egypt greatest building were made, such as the early Masters , the Pyramids, the Valley of the Kings, and much more.In Egyptian culture the gods were closely tied in with the afterlife as they decided whether or not you could pass through to the other side, so fittingly the Egyptians also build huge temples to honor their gods. All Egyptians architecture was created with a purpose, whether it be to please the gods or their kings. The Egyptians were also very avid sculptors they sculpted life size representations of their nobility and kings in their prime. Studying these sculptures and their architectural achievement can give the modern world amazing amounts of insight into their culture.The Egyptians were so obsessed with the afterlife that they built special tombs to insure that the dead kings or nobleman's body would not be tampered with. The early Masters were Just a functional way of burying their kings and nobility in safe place that would insure their safe passage into the afterlife. They were built on the west side of the Nile River, w hich to them was a symbol of death; it was the place where the sun fell into the underworld. (COM) They were not meant to be very grandiose as they were only a rectangular building with sloping sides.They meant to be functional. Inside the burial chamber of the Master was the preserved body of the death along with tangible items from their lives such as pets, food, and furniture. They even went as far as to bury the nobleman's or kings slaves along with the body so they have someone to serve them in the afterlife. To make the afterlife seem even more like real life the architects even had artists paint the walls of the burial chamber with real life events.All these factors such as the slaves, food, and material good make it clear that the Egyptians not only respected the afterlife but it almost seems like they looked forward to it. The masters were very functional but they were not fit for a god, which was the status that the pharaohs and kings of Egypt had achieved, so the Egyptian s replaced he masters with the pyramids. These were the functional equivalent of the masters, but they were grand enough to hold the body of a god. The most well know pyramid is The Great Pyramid of Cheeps (Chuff).This is the largest of the three pyramids of Gaza and home to Chuff. His tombs is massive, but he is the only one in the entire tomb. This further reinforces the idea that the pyramids were built for gods, they were so grand that no one else was worthy enough to be laid to rest in it. Even Chuff's wives were not allowed to be buried in his pyramid. They were buried in masters near his tombs. This along with the idea that Chuff was considered to be a god could also show that women were not as highly regarded as men were in ancient Egypt.The pyramids where not only a place worthy to bury a god, but they were also a place that is worthy of praise by any architect, mathematician, engineer, or astronomer of the modern era. Chuff's pyramid was the tallest standing structure in t he world for thousands of year, not only that, but it is also the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient world that is still standing. Along with those accolades the Pyramids of Gaza are also perfectly aligned with the stars. All these things give a lot of insight to into what the Egyptians valued other than Just the gods and afterlife.Without math and science the Egyptians would not have survived for as long as they did or been capable of building such amazing structures. It is easy to conclude that they thought very highly of math, particularly geometry to put so much effort into the subject; so much effort in fact that their knowledge of the subject would be unmatched for thousands of years. Along with geometry the Ancient Egyptians valued astronomy, if they did not they would not have bothered to align the structures they build with the stars.This interest astronomy could be because they associated their god with the heavens and paid tribute to them by building their struc tures in accordance with the sky, but there could also be a much simpler answer; they could have built the pyramids that way simply because they could and to show any other civilization that they were superior. Whatever the answer may be the pyramids not only showed the modern world where the Egyptians buried their kings, but it also taught them a great deal about what they cared about in terms of education.The Egyptians were not only great architects but they were great sculptors. The best example would be The Great Sphinx at Gaza. This along with an amazing feat of Architecture is an equally amazing piece of art. The Great Sphinx of Gaza is an anthropoids, which meaner that it has the body of a lion and the head of a human, in this case the head of a pharaoh. Like most buildings made by the Egyptians the Sphinx is a tribute to the pharaoh as well as the gods, but this building had a specific purpose.It was built behind a temple and was intended to guard the temple. This gives us a clue into how the Egyptians perceived their gods. The Egyptians didn't hint of their gods as distant deities that ruled over them, but they thought that the resided in the world with them, and by building the Sphinx of Gaza they thought that a god would reside in the Sphinx itself and protect the temple. The sphinx doesn't only appear in sculptures but it also appears in many paintings as well.In most painting, like the one shown below, the sphinx is shown as a fearsome creature that is fighting and destroying its opponents. Many archeologist think that the sphinx was representative of the pharaoh and if this is true it can further explain why the Egyptians people were so loyal to their king. Another thing we can infer from this picture and the countless other paintings and sculptures of the human and animal hybrids is what the Egyptian culture thought about animals. They Egyptians regarded animals very highly and associated them with power and strength.This is evident when you beg in to pay attention to how the Egyptians depicted their gods, for example Anabas who was the god that watched over the dead and the mummification process was depicted with the body of a man and the head of a Jackal. Another example is Amman Ra the sun god who watched over all the other gods supposedly had the body a man and the head of a falcon. The Egyptians greatly respected the power of animals and that maybe the reason that their gods and pharaohs where often associated with animals.Egypt is known for their colossal architecture, but that is not the only place that we can learn about their society from. Their minor sculptures can also tell us a great deal about how they their society functions and society was structured. For example the amount of information that can be gathered from this subculture is staggering. To begin with there were hundreds of sculptures exactly like this found in the Egyptian ruins, and the age of hose sculptures varied by hundreds of year.This meaner th at whatever these sculptures are trying to say is very meaning to the Egyptian people. The first thing you notice when you begin to examine the statue is the man's stance. He has one leg in front of the other indicating that he is moving forward. This shows that the men were the leaders of society in Egypt. With further examination you notice that the woman's shoulder is behind the man's, almost as if she is hiding behind him for protection, which indicates that it was a man's duty of protect any woman in his life whether it be his wife or sister.You can also infer what the men and woman looked for in spouses and what the ancient Egyptian society valued. For the men they had to be physically strong and fit as represented in the sculptures. The women had to be fit and slim as well, which is different from most ancient cultures, who wanted their women to be bigger to ensure that she could birth healthy babies. Studying the sculptures left behind by the Egyptians is a great was of lear ning about their society. The Ancient Egyptian society is the greatest society that has ever existed.The debility in their culture was because they all believed in the same thing and hey all acted according to their beliefs. They also built their architecture according their beliefs, the pyramids being the best example. It shows how they treated their kings who was also considered a god. It is also a great metaphor for their society. The base of the pyramid represents the slave and tip represents the pharaoh, and the middle represented the nobility and working class. It is information and representation like this that allows us to envision what their society and culture was like.